Monday, 17 November 2014

Complements of potentiality 可能补语



Complements of potentiality 可能补语


Dr Youxuan Wang
SLAS, University of Portsmouth
12 March 2013


1. Basic Rules:

(i) This type of complement is used when the speaker/writer is concerned with the possibility of success.

(ii) The main verb in the constituent of predicate recounts an action, while the complement which follows the main verb expresses the writer/speaker's view of the chance of success.

(iii) This type of complement can be constructed by transforming the complement of direction or the complement of direction.

Compare: Pay particular attention to the difference between 3a and 3b, and between 3a and 3b – in both their affirmative form and negative form

(3iii.a) Complements of result – affirmative and negative:

verb 1 + verb 2 = event 1 + event 2
In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of result, e.g.:

<> tīngdǒng (listen + understand =  to listen and understand what has been heard): to understand what one has heard. [你说得很快,不过,我都听懂了。]
<>  kànjiàn (look and perceive = to look  and perceive what has been seen): to see. [我看见前面来了五个人。]
<> zuòwán (work and finish = to do and finish what one has worked on): to complete what one has worked on. [他用两个小时的时间把作业做完了。]

to have not (verb 1 + verb 2 = event 1 + event 2): the first action is completed, but it has not led to event 2 as the result of event 1
In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of result, e.g.:

没听<> méi tīngdǒng (to have heard without understanding): to have not understood what one has heard .
没看<> méi kànjiàn (to have watched without perceiving): to have not seen/perceived what one has been trying to see.
没做<> méi zuòwán (to have worked without completing the task): to have not completed what one has worked on.

The two verbs are combined to denote a chain of actions/events.

(iii.b) Complements of potentiality – affirmative and negative
verb 1 + +  verb 2 = an antecedent + an consequent: if P, then Q.
This construction is used to expressed a condition: the first verb denotes a antecedent and the second verb following the structural word “” denoting a consequent: If action 1 is completed, action 2 will also be accomplished

<> tīng de dǒng (if one has heard something, one would understand it): to be capable of understanding something if one hears it, e.g.: 她听懂广东话。(She understands Cantonese – if/when she hears it being spoken.
<> kàn de dǒng (if one reads something, one would understand what one reads): to be capable of understanding what one reads, e.g. 她看得懂网上的文章。 (She understands the articles published on the Internet – if/shen she reads them.)


Exercise: explain the meaning of the following phrases:
<>
<>
       
< >
<>
<>
<>    

In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of potentiality. The two verbs are combined to express condition: if P (an antecedent), then Q (a consequent).

(iii.a) Complement of direction – affirmative and negative
verb  of movement + directional verb  = event 1 + event 2
In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of direction, e.g.:

<>: to get out
<>: to come over here.
<>: to lift up.
<>: to put down

+ verb  of movement + directional verb  = event 1 + event 2
In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of direction, e.g.:
       
[] <>: not to have got out.
[] <>: not to have come over here.
[] <>: not to have lifted up.
[] <>: not to have put down.

Two verbs are used to describe a chain of actions/events.

(iii.b) Complements of potentiality – affirmative and negative.
verb  of movement + directional verb  = event 1 + event 2

<> (if 出, then, it is possible to ): possible to get out.
<>  (if 走, then, it is possible to ): possible to get here on foot.
<> (if 提, then, it is possible to ): possible to lift up
<> (if 放, then, it is possible to ):

Exercise: explain the meaning of the following phrases and make a sentence with each of them:
<> (even if 出,it is not possible to ):
<> (even if 走,it is not possible to ):
<> (even if 提,it is not possible to ):
<> (even if 放,it is not possible to ):

In this construction, the second verb functions as a complement of potentiality. The two verbs are combined to express condition: if P (an antecedent), then Q (a consequent).

(iv)  With complement of result or complement of direction, the negative adverb 没有 is placed before the verb.

(v.) With complement of potential or complement of direction, the negative adverb is placed before the complement. It is the content of the complement that is been negated.


2. Some idiomatic expressions in the complement of potentiality

In the following collocations, resultant and directional verbs are used in constructing complements of potentially.

(1)                 verb + / +
Verbs: 去,走,做, 用,吃 ……
Complement: liǎo, to complete, to finish
Example of a collocation: 得了, possible to get there

我明天有时间,能够去你们那儿看看。
我明天不忙,去得了你们那儿。
我明天很忙,去不了你们那儿。

这么多饺子我都能吃<>
才这几个饺子,我吃得了。
这么多饺子我吃不了。

我们需要用三个小时才能把工作做完。
我们用不了三个小时就能把工作做完。

(2)                 verb + / +
Verbs: (to take a photograph) (to chase, to catch),算  (to be counted, to be included) ……
Complement: shàng, to be included, to join.
Example of a collocation: 照得上, possible to have someone photographed.

你得向宋华靠近一点儿。要不,就照不上了。You might need to get closer to Song Hua. Otherwise, I wouldn't be able to include you in the picture.

由于刻苦努力,她很快就赶上了功课。

她虽然能歌善舞,但还算不上是一个专业演员。

(3)                 verb + / +
Describing the fact as to whether the space is capacious enough or not to hold an object in question.
Verbs: (to seat)、放 (to place)……
Complement: xià, settle.
Example of a collocation: 放得下, capacious enough to hold (a certain quantity of certain items)

这个书箱很大,放得下五十本书。
这个书箱小了一点,放不下五十本书。


(4)                 verb + / +
Verbs: (to buy)、轮 (to come to someone in turn)……
Complement: dào, to accomplish successfully/unfailingly.
Example of a collocation: 买得到, there is a very good chance of success in purchasing (a certain thing)

今天中午 在餐厅 见得到 小张 吗?Will you be able to see [unfailingly] Xiao Zhang in the canteen at lunchtime?


3. Example sentences in the textbook

(Textbook used in Portsmouth)
句子
课文
页码
|| <得去>吗?
33
104
|| <|不去>
33
105
 你们||   <得上去> 吗?
33
104
我们 ||   <不上去>
33
104
我们 ||    <得懂> 中文 网上的 文章?
33
105
我们 ||    <不懂> 中文 网上的 文章。
33
105


4. Exercises (book 3, 《实用汉语课本》)


3.1. 熟读下列短语:(1)-(4), pp. 112-113.
3.2. 句型替换:(1)-(4), pp. 113-114.

Saturday, 1 November 2014

Tones and the modulation of some spoken words’ tones in contexts



Tones and the modulation of some spoken words’ tones in contexts


Youxuan Wang
SLAS,
University of Portsmouth
2014-11-01


The tones of Chinese spoken words can be represented in terms of music notes. Each spoken word in context has a fixed tone. You need to remember its tone as described in dictionaries (and glossaries) and you should also remember the rules for its modulation in certain context.